How Your Corporation Will Be Taxed
In this guide, you'll learn about the main types of tax in Montana that apply to corporations, including sales, self-employment, corporate and federal taxes.
How your corporation is taxed will depend on whether it's an S Corp or a C Corp.
Montana State Tax
There is one type of Montana tax you must pay to the MT Department of Revenue: income tax.
Important: All of these taxes apply whether you have a C Corp or an S Corp.
Montana Income Tax
Anyone who takes earnings out of your corporation will need to pay MT income tax and will be taxed at the state's standard rates. Any employees will also need to pay state income tax. The current income tax brackets for Montana are graduated, ranging from 1 percent to 6.9 percent depending on what your taxable income amount is.
You can use the tax tables provided by the Montana Department of Revenue to get an idea of how much you'll need to pay, but consult with your accountant or tax advisor to ensure you pay the proper amount.
Montana Corporate Income Tax
As a corporation operating in Montana you are required to pay corporate income tax. All corporations are required to file a Montana Corporate Income Tax Return (Form CIT) and pay any tax they owe.
The current corporate income tax rate in Montana is 6.75% and a minimum tax of $50 must be paid by each corporation every year, unless you fall under an exemption.
Federal Taxes for Corporations
Federal taxes can be complicated, so speak to your accountant or professional tax preparer to ensure that your Montana corporation is paying the correct amount, and that you're paying the correct individual amount.
Federal Taxes for C Corps
All shareholders who earn wages or a salary from a C Corporation must pay self-employment tax. This tax is administered by the Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA) and covers Social Security, Medicare and other benefits. The current self-employment tax rate is 15.3 percent.
You’ll be able to deduct some of your business expenses from your income when calculating how much self-employment tax you owe.
Federal Taxes for S Corps
The Internal Revenue Service allows a corporation to be treated as an S Corporation for tax purposes, provided your business meets certain requirements. This can help you reduce the amount of self-employment tax you pay by allowing you to declare some of your income as salary and other income as distributions or withdrawals.
You do this by filing Form 2553, also known as an S Corp Election form, with the IRS. Incfile can also file the form for you. Use our S Corp Tax Calculator to get an idea of how much money you could save with this election.
Consult with your accountant or tax advisor for more information on reducing your self-employment tax through an S Corporation tax election.
You can do this by making an “S Corporation Tax Election” with the IRS using Form 2553. We can file your Form 2553 with the IRS on your behalf.
Unlike a limited liability company or an S Corporation, a C Corporation is required to file a corporate tax return and pay taxes on any profits.
When those profits are paid to shareholders as dividends, they will also be subject to taxation on the shareholders' personal tax returns.
This is often referred to as “double taxation,” and is one reason many business owners prefer to file their taxes as S Corporations.
Note: It is possible for a C Corp to file taxes as an S Corp. Consult with your accountant or professional tax advisor for more information.
A C Corporation may pay shareholders dividends as a share of the profits of the company. The value of dividends to which each shareholder is entitled depends on how many shares they own.
Dividends distributed to shareholders are taxed twice — first at the corporate level as profit (on the corporation’s Form 1120, the U.S. Corporation Income Tax Return) and again at the individual level as stock dividends (on the shareholder's Form 1040, the U.S. Individual Income Tax Return).
Incfile provides a complete Business Tax Filing service.
Employee and Employer Taxes
If you pay employees, there are some slightly different tax implications. Speak to your accountant to get clear guidance for your unique situation.
Other Taxes and Duties
Depending on your industry, you may be liable for certain other taxes and duties. For example, if you sell gasoline, you may need to pay a tax on any fuel you sell. Likewise, if you import or export goods, you may need to pay certain duties.
Speak to your accountant about any other taxes or duties you may need to withhold or pay.
If you expect to owe $500 or more in income tax, you must make four quarterly estimated tax payments to the IRS. You'll estimate your total tax on Form 1120-W, then pay 25% on each due date. Please note that the IRS will no longer be updating Form 1120-W, so follow up with your accountant with any questions on estimated tax payments after 2023.
Important: This applies to you as the owner of the C Corporation, not the business itself. A C Corporation does not pay income tax.
It's a little less straightforward for an S Corp, which will pay estimated taxes by filing an IRS Form 1120-S, which is the income tax return form for S Corps.
Also, as the owner of an S Corp, you'll need to make estimated payments on self-employment tax.
Learn more on the IRS website, and speak to your accountant for more information. Or use Incfile's Business Tax Filing service.
FAQs on Montana Taxes
No. Unlike most states in the country, Montana does not have a sales tax.
Yes. The State of Montana does have an income tax. You can find more information above.
No. Montana does not levy a tax on corporations for the privilege of doing business.
Yes. In most cases, you must pay estimated taxes to the federal government, whether you run a C Corp or an S Corp. You'll find more information above.